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Conjunctions grammar

Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions join dependent clauses with independent clauses. In other words, they connect incomplete sentences with complete ones. They can be memorised using the acronym: I SAW A WABUB.

  • If
  • Since
  • As
  • When
  • After
  • While
  • Although
  • Before
  • Until
  • Because

If the subordinating conjunction is stated at the start, use a comma to separate the clauses. If however it is mentioned at the end, no comma is needed.

If interest rates decrease and the stock market performs well, a bull bond’s value is expected to increase.

A bull bond’s value is expected to increase if interest rates decrease and the stock market performs well.

Since the stocks in any sector are usually correlated with each other, they can be very volatile.

Sector funds can be very volatile since the stocks in any sector are usually correlated with each other.

As the name implies, equity funds invests predominantly in stocks.

Equity funds invest primarily in stocks as the name implies.

While you were at your meeting, the package arrived.

The package arrived while you were at your meeting.

Categories
Conjunctions grammar

Because

There are countless types of equity funds because there are many different types of equities.

Here, the conjunction because is used to introduce the reason why there are so many types of equity funds.

Because there are countless types of bonds, there are a whole array of bond funds depending on what they invest in.

Here, the conjunction is mentioned at the start so a comma is need when the independent clause starts. Also, the independent clause after Because answers the question why are there so many bond funds depending on what they invest in?

Categories
Conjunctions grammar

And

A mutual fund is a type of financial instrument consisting of a pool of capital collected from many individual investors to invest in securities like stocks, bonds and other assets.

In the above sentence, the conjunction and joins series of items together. The pool of capital is invested in a series of items: Stocks, bonds and other assets.

Under a policy established by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, people with mild cases are asked to stay at home..

Here, and joins series of items or series of name of governmental departments.

Categories
Conjunctions grammar

And

And. This word is one of seven coordinating conjunctions which can be memorised using the acronym FANBOYS.

The following sentences show and used as a glue in series of things:

  • Pencils, markers, paper clips and staples.
  • Outstanding shares are those held by all shareholders, institutional investors, and company officers or insiders.

And can be used to connect phrases such as in these sentences:

  • Calling clients, reading email, and attending conferences take up most of my time.

And can be used to join complete sentences:

  • Republicans have the view in Congress that the states should be responsible for themselves, and the states should make rules for social welfare.

Categories
Conjunctions grammar

Because

Conjunctions

Conjunctions join words, phrases and clauses. Consider them as glue or adhesive that connect parts together. Today, let’s look at coordinating conjunctions.

There are seven coordinating conjunctions that can be memorised with the acronym: FANBOYS.

  • For
  • And
  • Nor
  • Because
  • Or
  • Yet
  • So

For this post, let’s focus on because by reading about mutual funds.

If an investor buys only Netflix stock he stands to lose a great deal of value because all of his dollars are invested in one company.

In the above example, because joins two complete sentences: If an investor buys only Netflix stocks he stands to lose a great deal of value and all of his dollars are invested in one company.

The two clauses of the sentence can be interchanged:

Because all of his dollars are invested in one company, an investor stands to lose a great deal of value if he buys only Netflix stocks.

As a result of interchanging clauses, some minor adjustments have to be made, like adding a comma after the first clause and tweaking the position of the pronoun he.

So, because shows a cause and effect relationship. Specifically, an investor stands to lose a great deal of value if he buys exclusively one type of stock. This is the net effect. What is the cause of risking losing value? If he buys only stocks of just one public company. This is the cause.